Bihar, the ancient land of Buddha, has witnessed golden period of Indian history The fertile land of Bihar has a rich and very ancient history which even goes back to the very dawn of the human civilizations. Throughout the ages and civilizations it’s the land which gave birth to many great men who spread the massages of love, peace, brotherhood and humanity throughout the length and breadth of the globe. The earliest history of Bihar region can be traced in Hindu epic of Ramayana. Sita, the consort of Lord Rama, was a princess of Bihar. She was the daughter of King Janak of Videha. The present districts of Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Samastipur, Madhubani, and Darbhanga, in north-central Bihar, mark this ancient kingdom. The present small township of Sitamarhi is located here. According to legend, the birthplace of Sita is Punaura, located on the west-side of Sitamarhi, the headquarters of the district. Janakpur, the capital of King Janak, and the place where Lord Rama and Sita were married, lies just across the border in Nepal. It is reached via the rail station of Janakapur Road located in the Sitamarhi district, on the Narkatiyaganj - Darbhanga section of the North-Eastern Railway. It is no accident, therefore, that the original author of the Hindu epic - The Ramayana - Maharishi Valmiki - lived in Ancient Bihar. Valmikinagar is a small town and a railroad station in the district of West Champaran, close to the railhead of Narkatiyaganj in northwest Bihar. The word Champaran is derived from champa-arnya, or a forest of the fragrant Champa (magnolia) tree.
Different regions of Bihar like Mithila, Anga, Magadha, Vaishali, are mentioned in different religious and epics of ancient India. South-West Bihar was the power centre of ancient Bihar, which was around the region of called Magadha .It was which was the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years.
The Haryanka dynasty was founded in 684 BC ruled by Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern name is Rajgir), There was two well known kings Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru who imprisoned his own father to get the throne. Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru which was the city.Then later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered Vajji another powerful Mahajanapada north of Ganges with their capital at Vaishali. Vaishali was ruled by Licchvi who had a republic form of government where king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in pertaining to both Jainism and Buddhism, Vaishali was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, prior to the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic. Haryanka Dynasty was followed by Shishunaga dynasty and later Nanda Dynasty replaced them with a vast empire from Bengal to Punjab.
Maurya Empire replaced the Nanda Empire . India's first empire, the Maurya empire as well as Buddhism arose from the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was started by Chandragupta Maurya who was born in Magadha, and had its capital at Pataliputra (modern name is Patna). The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. Pataliputra is situated on the bank of the holy river Ganga
Bihar was an important place of culture and education during the next 1000 years. Such fertile is the soil that has given birth to innumerous intellectuals which spread the light of knowledge and wisdom not only in the country but in the whole world. The Gupta Empire which was originated from Magadha in 240 AD is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.